Chronology of Dubrovnik in 12th century


Pope Innocent II abolished the metropolitanate of Bar and placed it under the rule of Dubrovnik.


Venice looked upon the area north of the line Dubrovnik-Ancona as being of vital interest and endeavored to include not only Dubrovnik, but also the whole of the north-west part of the Adriatic under her direct control.


Dubrovnik contracted an agreement with the town of Molfetta. This agreement, which was Dubrovnik's first known trade agreement, gave both towns the freedom to trade without the payment of port fees. Henceforth Dubrovnik developed into a big maritime and trading center on the coast; the town became a mediator for trade between inland areas and western lands overseas.


The Arabian scholar, El-Idrisi, wrote in his book “Kitab Rujar” that Dubrovnik was the last town of Croatia.


The Byzantine Emperor Manuel Comnenus restored the authority of Byzantium in Croatia and Dalmatia, which had been lost during the time of the Croatian King Petar Krešimir IV. In Dalmatia, a united administration was introduced. Dubrovnik, together with Split and Trogir, came under this administration. The Byzantine Empire ruled in Dalmatia until the death of Manuel Comnenus in the year 1180, and Dubrovnik alone continued to be under the Empire's rule.


Dubrovnik, together with Split, signed a trading agreement with Pisa. With this agreement Dubrovnik opened up commercial routes, enjoying the same privileges as Pisa throughout the Levant and Constantinople and the areas from Syria to Gibraltar. The agreement outlined the extent of Dubrovnik's trading interest and the breadth of her overseas trading contacts.


For a short time Venice dominated Dubrovnik, whereupon Dubrovnik accepted the protection of the Normans and in the year 1172 was freed from Venetian rule.


The first mention is made of the Dubrovnik Commune (communitas ragusina). In the course of time this medieval commune became a city state. Dubrovnik and Kotor signed an agreement for a firm and lasting peace.


Dubrovnik defeated the navy of Raška at Poljice, after the threat of invasion by sea.


Because of the defeat at Poljice, Stefan Nemanja and his brothers attacked Dubrovnik from inland. They broke into the town for a short time but were eventually driven out.

Because of the threat of an attack from the rulers of Raška, Dubrovnik again accepted the protection of the Normans.


Peace was signed with Stefan Nemanja. The new peace brought with it the privilege of free trade in the land of Raška and its rulers guaranteed the security of Dubrovnik's communal territory and borders. After this new peace the rulers of Raška were not able to threaten free Dubrovnik again.


The people of Dubrovnik and Rovinj restored peace.

Dubrovnik contracted a trade agreement with Ravenna.


Kulin Ban allowed the people of Dubrovnik the liberty of trading in Bosnia without the payment of taxes. In return they gave him whatever they thought appropriate. In the agreement the Croatian name, Dubrovnik, appeared for the first time.


The Kačić family from Omiš guaranteed Dubrovnik ships and merchants free trading and passage between Vratnik and Molunt in the direction of the Italian and Croatian coasts. In return the Dubrovnik people paid a certain sum of money to the Kačić family.

The ruler of Zahumlje, Miroslav, contracted a pact of friendship with the Dubrovnik state.

The first Dubrovnik law was passed granting free circulation of some criminals and debtors during the holiday of St. Blasius.


Dubrovnik inhabitants shook off the sovereignty of the Normans. Again they returned to the Byzantine Empire. As an incentive, they received from Emperor Isaac Angelus a special Charter (hrizovulja). The Charter gave the people of Dubrovnik the right to trade freely in the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria, and in return they were bound not to form any alliance directed against the Byzantine Empire.

According to Dubrovnik and English chronicles, the English King Richard The Lion Heart, on his return from the third Crusade, paid a visit to Dubrovnik. On that occasion, to fulfill a vow he had made after being saved from a gale, he presented the Dubrovnik people with a certain sum of money, with which they began to build a new cathedral.


Poreč and Dubrovnik agreed on settling their disagreements within a 30-day period.


The Croatian herceg Andrija ruled in Zahumlje, and Dubrovnik thus directly bordered on the Kingdom of Croatia.


Dubrovnik contracted a trade agreement with the towns of Fana and Ancona.

Pope Innocent III invited the Dubrovnik people to take part in the Crusade against the Saracens.

The same Pope restored the metropolitanate at Bar and eventually separated it from Dubrovnik. The Dubrovnik Archbishop Bernard fled from Dubrovnik when the inhabitants threatened his life, considering him guilty of losing Bar. He went to England, where he received a new bishopric.


Read more:

Chronology of Dubrovnik from 7th to 11th century I Chronology of Dubrovnik in 11th century I Chronology of Dubrovnik in 12th century I Chronology of Dubrovnik in 13th century I Chronology of Dubrovnik in 14th century I Chronology of Dubrovnik in 15th century I Chronology of Dubrovnik in 16th century I Chronology of Dubrovnik in 17th century I Chronology of Dubrovnik in 18th century I Chronology of Dubrovnik in 19th century


Prepared by Josip Lucic

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